Following 9-11, rates of Islamophobia and hate crimes against anyone perceived to be Muslim skyrocketed. This included both Arab and South Asian people, regardless of religious or cultural affiliation. These two communities have been consequently negatively affected in many areas of their life, including work, often negatively portrayed, unless fitting the stereotype of the good immigrant. Xenophobia particularly impacts these communities.
With South Asian and Arab people (regardless of any intersecting identity) having faced discrimination well before the occurrence of 9-11, that single event further culminated the single lens through which people from these communities are seen, blurring together heterogeneous and distinct groups of people into a single brown blur, whose values and ideologies were assumed, and whom discrimination in all forms was justified and even legalized as acts against terror.
These forms of discrimination had profound impacts on the workplace. Examples include the instatement of bill 21 in Quebec Canada, preventing Muslim women from wearing the hijab should they work in a civic job, but also increased hate crimes against Sikh men and women.